MENASASI Middle East and North Africa Society of Air Safety Investigators

Cabin safety bulletin 12

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Cabin safety bulletin 12 - General aviation passenger briefings

 

 

What is the purpose of this bulletin?

The purpose of this bulletin is to provide guidance on how to conduct a briefing to increase passenger situational awareness and enhance any response to an emergency or abnormal event within the passenger-carrying environment.

This bulletin on its own does not change, create, amend or permit deviations from regulatory requirements, nor does it establish minimum standards.

Survivors of aircraft accidents have provided anecdotal evidence as to the importance of their recollection of information concerning the correct operation of aircraft equipment such as exits, the location of emergency equipment and how to adopt the brace position for impact. Adequately briefed passengers, who understand how to help themselves, will assist in the quick and successful evacuation of an aircraft.

Conducting the briefing

The briefing shall be conducted each time passengers are carried.

Passengers shall be orally briefed. The briefing can be presented verbally and/or via an audio-visual presentation.

Passengers with special needs receives an individual safety briefing. Examples of these passengers would include visually or hearing-impaired persons or those travelling with infants.

Safety briefings explain where to locate and how to use the emergency equipment passengers may be required to operate. In an emergency, a well-briefed passenger will depend less on a crew member and optimise their chance of survival. This life-saving information should be conveyed to passengers in conjunction with a safety-briefing card featuring signs and placards specific to your aircraft.

Each briefing should address:

  • embarkation/disembarkation
  • baggage limits and stowage of baggage
  • seat belt fastening, tightening, releasing procedures
  • importance of using a shoulder harness, where fitted
  • configuration and securing of seat backs, as appropriate
  • location and operation of doors and emergency exits
  • oxygen-dispensing equipment, where appropriate
  • location and operation of emergency equipment such as the emergency locator transmitter, survival kit, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher and any other safety equipment
  • the rules regarding electronic devices such as mobile phones
  • the location and use of life jackets, including fitment and when to inflate
  • no smoking
  • how to manage inflight turbulence
  • dangerous goods that passengers are forbidden to transport aboard an aircraft.

Section A – Aeroplanes

The pilot-in-command should conduct the passenger briefing prior to engine start, where possible. The type of operation dictates what sort of briefing will be conducted with suggested content as follows:

Pre-flight Briefing

  • Seat belt fastening, tightening, releasing procedures.
  • Importance of using a shoulder harness where fitted.
  • Location and operation of doors and emergency exits.
  • Location and operation of emergency equipment such as the emergency locator transmitter, survival kit, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher and any other safety equipment.
  • Location and use of life jackets, including fitment and when to inflate.
  • No smoking.
  • Oxygen-dispensing equipment.
  • Remain in the seat unless given permission to move.
  • Do not distract the pilot during take-off, manoeuvring or landing.

In the event of an emergency

Actions and precautions to take in the event of an emergency:

  • follow instructions
  • do not distract the pilot
  • check that any loose equipment in the cabin is secured
  • brace position.

Emergency landing on land:

  • when and how to exit the aeroplane
  • assist others to evacuate well clear of the aeroplane
  • remove first aid kit and other emergency equipment after no threat of fire.

Emergency landing on water:

  • establish your position in relation to the exit
  • release the seat belt
  • inflate life jacket and life raft when clear of the aeroplane.

Section B – Helicopters

The pilot-in-command should conduct the passenger briefing prior to entering the helicopter and engine start. The type of operation dictates what sort of briefing will be conducted with suggested content as follows:

Pre-flight Briefing

  • Seat belt fastening, tightening, releasing procedures.
  • Importance of using a shoulder harness where fitted.
  • Location and operation of doors and emergency exits.
  • Location and operation of emergency equipment such as the emergency locator transmitter, survival kit, first-aid kit, fire extinguisher and any other safety equipment.
  • Location and use of life jackets, including fitment and when to inflate.
  • No smoking.
  • Remain in the seat unless given permission to move.
  • Do not distract the pilot during take-off, manoeuvring or landing.

In the event of an emergency

Actions and precautions to take in the event of an emergency:

  • follow instructions
  • do not distract the pilot
  • check that any loose equipment in the cabin is secured
  • brace position.

Emergency landing on land:

  • when and how to exit
  • assist others to evacuate well clear of the aircraft
  • remove first aid kit and other emergency equipment after no threat of fire.

Emergency landing on water:

  • establish your position in relation to the exit
  • release the seat belt
  • inflate life jacket and life raft when clear of helicopter.

Safety procedures may vary slightly from one helicopter model to another, however, the following may be included in relevant passenger briefings:

  • wait for instructions to approach or leave the helicopter
  • stay well clear of the helipad when the helicopter is arriving or departing
  • approach and leave to the side or front in a crouched position; never by the rear of the helicopter
  • if possible, wait until the rotors stop turning
  • carry tools horizontally, below waist level, never upright, over the shoulder or above the head
  • never throw items towards or out of a helicopter
  • hold firmly onto hats and loose articles
  • never reach up or dart after a hat or other object that might have blown off or away
  • protect eyes against blown dust and particles by shielding them with a hand or by wearing sunglasses, safety glasses or safety goggles
  • if sudden blindness occurs due to dust or a blowing object, stop and crouch lower or sit down and wait for assistance
  • approach and leave by the downslope side for rotor clearance
  • never feel their way toward or away from the helicopter
  • protect hearing by wearing ear plugs or muffs.

Section C – Hot air balloons

The pilot-in-command should conduct the passenger briefing prior to flight.

Pre-flight briefing

  • Passengers must follow pilot-in-command instructions.
  • When and how to enter and exit the basket.
  • No smoking in or around the balloon.
  • Precautions relating to the inflation fan.
  • Precautions relating to the hot phase of inflating the balloon.
  • Restricted access areas in the launch area.
  • Details of the landing position appropriate to the balloon design type and that this position must be adopted for all landings on hearing the cue ‘landing positions’.
  • A practice adoption of the landing position by all passengers to demonstrate their understanding.
  • An explanation that on landing the basket may remain upright or may tip onto the side and although this may not happen it is quite normal.
  • A reminder to remain in the basket in any event until instructed to disembark.
  • An instruction to:
    • flex the knees on touch down
    • where to hold on
    • stow cameras and personal items before landing
    • ensure that nothing can be outside the basket including hair, clothing or limbs can be outside the basket.

Pre-landing briefing

On approach to landing, the pilot-in-command should make a pre-landing announcement reminding passengers that:

  • cameras and loose personal items must be stowed
  • on the command ‘landing positions’ all passenger must assume the position previously practiced
  • all persons must remain on board until instructed to disembark
  • if the landing is anticipated to be fast or hard, a reminder of the knee flex position and to hold on firmly.

The oral briefing may be supplemented with:

  • assistance from ground support personnel to ensure all passengers have demonstration the landing position
  • repetition of the oral briefing by a translator
  • use of placards and signage using text and/or pictograms and international symbols that illustrate the landing position and other requirements.

In relation to dangerous goods, balloon operators must inform passengers about the dangerous goods that passengers are forbidden to take on board. The information must be provided to passengers prior to boarding. The information may be provided as part of the pre-flight briefing or on a safety card.

IATA Table 2.3.A provides an indicative list of dangerous goods able to be carried by passengers or crew.

Note: Items such as fire arms and knives are considered security items therefore subject to the applicable requirements under the Aviation Transport Security Act 2004.

Safety Mnemonic

The mnemonic SAFETY can be used as a method to convey important information to passengers by aircrew as detailed below:

S

Seatbelt

  • Use and adjustment of seat belts (shoulder harness, if applicable), i.e. the method of fastening; tightening and unfastening for taxi, take-off and landing.
  • Seatbelts must be worn low and tight and kept fastened anytime passengers are seated.
  • Seatbelts must be fastened anytime the seat belt sign is illuminated and any instruction from crew members in relation to the seatbelt must be obeyed.

Seats

  • Adjust and lock in place, how to adopt the brace position if sitting in an aft, forward or side facing position.

Smoking

  • Emphasis on prohibition of smoking, including use of e-cigarettes.

Special needs passengers

  • Require an individual briefing appropriate to the needs of the passenger in the procedures to be followed in the event of an emergency evacuation of the aircraft including:
  • which emergency exit to use
  • when to move to that exit
  • most appropriate manner of assisting the person(s).

Special survival equipment

  • Where additional safety equipment is carried, e.g. for operations through remote areas of Australia, the location of that equipment must be included in the briefing.
  • If emergency procedures include the use of passengers to assist in locating, retrieving or using the safety equipment, relevant instruction should be included in the briefing.

Stowage of luggage

  • Luggage, loose articles, maps and water bottles are adequately restrained, and aisles; passageways and exits are kept clear of obstruction.
  • Approved stowage locations and conditions relevant to the aircraft and operation.
  • Carriage of any restricted or prohibited dangerous goods; weight and balance of the aircraft.

A

Actions

  • Required in turbulence and the process to follow if supplemental oxygen is required.

Air vents

  • Environmental controls in the cabin and action to be taken in the event a passenger feels unwell.

Awareness

  • Altitude changes may be encountered.

F

Fire extinguishers

  • Location and method of removal of the fire extinguisher from its brackets and how to operate.

Flotation devices

  • Brief passengers on the type, location and use of individual flotation devices.
  • Fitment (adult and infant) of life jackets and that life rafts, if carried, must only be inflated outside the aircraft.
  • The briefing will also include:
  • stowage locations of life jackets
  • removal of life jackets from stowage, e.g. extraction from pouches
  • donning of life jacket and a brief on any differences there may be
  • use, including manual and oral inflation methods
  • instructions on when the equipment should be inflated
  • manual operation of accessories.
  • If applicable, manoeuvring of life raft, relevant instructions on retrieval from stowage and preparation for use.

E

Electronic devices

  • Types of portable electronic devices (PED) that can be used airside and onboard, and at what stages of flight.

Emergency equipment

  • If applicable, use of oxygen including:
    • locating, donning and adjusting the equipment and any action that might be necessary to start the flow of oxygen.
  • Location and operation of emergency locator transmitter, first aid and survival kit, parachute equipped aircraft, other safety equipment.

Emergency procedures

  • Actions following a forced landing or ditching.
  • Identification of an assembly point away from the aircraft, if required.

Exits

  • Location of emergency exits including any additional information about the exits; physically pointing them out.
  • Demonstrate the operation of exit doors and windows, the use of steps and handholds to exit safely.
  • Ramp safety including the dangers of spinning propellers.

T

Talking

  • Explain the need for sterile communication.
  • If passenger is wearing a headset, explain the need to maintain silence when information is being received.
  • Requirement to inform the pilot of any hazards identified.

Touching

  • Passengers seated at a pilot position must be informed of the requirement not to touch the controls or pedals on the floor unless instructed.

Traffic

  • Brief passengers that they may be able to assist by observing for any other aircraft and explain and demonstrate the ‘clock system’ of identification.

Y

Your questions

  • Answer any questions regarding the briefing and seek confirmation of understanding.
  • Use the passenger safety briefing card to reinforce the information.

The delivery of a professional pre-flight briefing is an important part of flight preparation and provides confidence to passengers about safe travel to their destination.

Ensure that the briefing is informative and interesting by making eye contact, speaking at a slower than normal rate and eliminating distractions. In the event a frequent flyer states that a briefing is not necessary, ensure an explanation is proffered such that the equipment may differ on the same aircraft type, therefore, it is important to familiarise all occupants with this detail. It is also of value to outline that the safety briefing confirms passengers know what is expected of them and is required by law.

Refer to the following document which can act as an aide for pilots in delivering the pre-flight briefing to passengers. Print the Passenger safety briefing (PDF 2.73 MB) (2.73 MB), laminate and use to conduct your pre-flight passenger briefings.

//www.casa.gov.au/node/1460606

Further information

For more information, view the cabin safety page.

Additional Resources

  1. Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) (2018). Air Safety Institute. Public Benefit Flying: Balancing Safety and Compassion.
  2. Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB) (2017). Investigation to Sky 220-24 hot air balloon, G-SPEL, Passenger fell out of basket during landing, Bashall Eaves, Lancashire, 14 June 2017.
  3. Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB) (2014). Investigation to AS332 L2 Super Puma, G-WNSB – Special Bulletin S1/2014.
  4. Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB) (2018). Transport Safety Report, Aviation Occurrence Investigation AO-2018-082, 30 August 2018.
  5. Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) (2014). Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (CAAP) 92-2(2) Guidelines for the establishment and operation of onshore Helicopter Landing Sites.
  6. Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) (2004). Civil Aviation Advisory Publication (CAAP) 253-2 (0) Passenger safety information: Guidelines on content and standard of safety information to be provided to passengers by aircraft operators.
  7. Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) (2012). CASA Safety Video-Passenger briefing.
  8. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (2014). Safety briefing. Volume 53/Number 4 July/August. Flying companion’s guide to GA Parts I and II.
  9. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (2018). Manual on information and instructions for passenger safety (Doc 10086).
  10. Transport Canada (2017). A safety guide for aircraft charter passengers.
  11. Transport Canada (2018). Best Practices in general aviation. Passenger safety briefings: why, when and how.
  12. Transport Canada (2014). Hot air balloons. TP15245E.
  13. Transport Canada (2004). Safety around helicopters. TP4263b.